On July 9, 2014, the Second Circuit issued a decision in United States v. Park, 13-4142-CR, reversing an EDNY decision sentencing a defendant to probation rather than imprisonment “based solely on its belief that the government could not afford the cost of incarceration during a so-called “government shut-down.”
In Park, the defendant pled guilty to one count of tax evasion. The defendant had prior convictions, but the EDNY sentenced the defendant to probation rather than imprisonment, explaining:
I would probably give a period of incarceration if not for the financial pressures that the Court has, the court system and the government has. Especially low-level federal employees at the present time. And we really can’t afford the luxury of paying another $28,000 to keep this person in jail under the circumstances . . . .
The Second Circuit reversed, explaining:
[W]e conclude that the District Court committed procedural error in imposing a term of probation in lieu of imprisonment for two reasons. First, the only sentencing factor the District Court deemed relevant was the cost of incarceration to the government and the economic problems allegedly caused by the government shut-down. . . . The Court therefore committed procedural error by refusing to consider the § 3553(a) factors in deciding what is an appropriate sentence.
Second, and equally problematic, is that the cost of incarceration to the government—the Court’s sole justification for imposing a term of probation rather than incarceration—is not a relevant sentencing factor under the applicable statutes. [B]ased on the plain language of § 3553(a), no sentencing factor can reasonably be read to encompass the cost of incarceration. Nor does the statute permit the sentencing court to balance the cost of incarceration against the sentencing goals enumerated in § 3553(a).
(Internal quotations and citations omitted) (emphasis added). The Second Circuit went on to hold that not only was the sentence procedurally unreasonable, it also was–based on the record as it stood–substantively unreasonable, given the defendant’s conduct and prior convictions.